2016/08/04

Doha, shining jewel of Qatar

The shining jewel of Qatar, Doha is a multicultural city, home to most of the country's population as well as expatriate communities from a range of backgrounds. Shopping abounds in plentiful shopping centers of the city, while the Corniche impresses visitors with picturesque architecture and dazzling views of the harbor. 

Doha has countless cultural facilities, including the futuristic Education City and the National Museum.  After hosting the 2006 Asian Games, the city is home to many sports complexes as wellLocated on the southern coast of the Persian Gulf, the capital of Qatar has experienced rapid and impressive growth over the last 50 years.  

Doha, shining jewel of Qatar

Doha, shining jewel of Qatar

Doha, shining jewel of Qatar

Doha, shining jewel of Qatar

Doha, shining jewel of Qatar

Doha, shining jewel of Qatar

Doha, shining jewel of Qatar

Doha, shining jewel of Qatar


 
Today, Doha is firmly established as a major international center for art and culture, with world-class museums, ultra-modern skyscrapers and a walk on the banks of beautiful sea. 

 It is also one of the safest cities in the Middle East and welcomes expatriates from around the world - to the extent that some estimates suggest that the Qataris are now outnumbered by as much as six to one. The warm climate makes the perfect winter escape, with temperatures ranging from 20-30 degrees Celsius between November and April.

2016/07/27

Ancient Egyptian Jobs

Occupations of ancient Egyptians depended heavily on their social structure. Many jobs were available to them because they had a well ordered society. Many jobs were inherited in ancient Egypt. But social mobility was not impossible.A look into the social pyramid of Egypt is necessary to understand the jobs people took to: Ultimate power was vested in the Pharaoh, the king of Egypt. Though gods were the controllers of the country, Pharaoh was believed to be god in human form.The Pharaoh's closest advisor, the vizier had the status of a prime minster.

Ancient Egyptian Jobs

Government officials such as priests and nobles came next. Soldiers and scribes came thereafter. This was followed by Merchants, Artisans and farmers. Slaves and servants formed the bottom of the social pyramid.Pharaoh was the ultimate authority in the country. He was to manage the army and protect the people. He was in charge of enforcing law and order in the country.The vizier was an important court official. He had to manage building and construction, manage labour, collect taxes, supervise administration, maintain accounts etc. Noblemen helped the Pharaoh run the country these were the people that worked in the government.Scribe was an important occupation in Egypt. Scribes were the few literate people of Egypt.

Ancient Egyptian Jobs

Ancient Egyptian Jobs

Ancient Egyptian Jobs

Ancient Egyptian Jobs

Ancient Egyptian Jobs


Ancient Egyptian Jobs

Ancient Egyptian Jobs

Ancient Egyptian Jobs

Ancient Egyptian Jobs

Ancient Egyptian Jobs

Ancient Egyptian Jobs


Ancient Egyptian Jobs

Ancient Egyptian Jobs

Ancient Egyptian Jobs

Ancient Egyptian Jobs

Ancient Egyptian Jobs

Ancient Egyptian Jobs


They were responsible for jobs relating to teaching. The Priests and Priestesses looked after the temples and conducted the religious ceremonies.Astrologers also had important jobs relating to religious observances and the location and position for temples and tombs.Egypt is famous for their knowledge in architecture to which the great pyramids serve testimony. Therefore, building and construction were also important jobs in the country.

The vast building programs in Ancient Egypt necessitated the jobs of engineers and architects. Forced labour and slave system existed.Though Egypt was a peaceful country, there existed an army. Commands in the army provided the opportunity for ordinary people to rise in society.

The most common jobs were related to the foot soldiers but the charioteers were a respected force.There were craftsmen who were also employed for complicated stone cutting and creating sculptures. Artists were employed to decorate the homes of wealthy Egyptians and to decorate tombs and temples.

There were entertainers who were the dancers and acrobats who entertained wealthy Egyptians.  Dwarfs were a popular form of court entertainment.Farmers also lived a merry life in ancient Egypt as Nile provided an excellent source of irrigation. Merchants bought and sold commodities.

There were also fishermen, manual labourers, weavers, metal workers, potters, carpenters, upholsterers, tailors, shoe-makers, glass-blowers, boat-builders, wig-makers, and embalmers. Story-tellers, cooks, gardeners, masons, miners and butchers also existed.

Ancient Egyptian Food For Kids

It is interesting to study the food habits of ancient Egyptians, among other aspects of their living. It is surprising that, ful medammes,the bean dish which is now the National Dish of Egypt was eaten in the Pharaonic periods. What the ancient Egyptians ate varied depending of their social and financial status. If you are rich, you are made available better food.Egyptian food recipes were influenced by factors like foreign invasion, foreign trade.

Ancient Egyptian Food For Kids

Main influence to Egyptian cuisine came from Syria, Lebanon, Turkey and Greece.Ancient Egyptians mainly grew wheat and barley; they used wheat to bake bread and used barley to make beer. Beer was an ancient national drink in Egypt and it was stored in special beer jars. Spices were added to it for improving the taste. Wine was the drink for the rich and it was made from vineyards. Bread was different from the breads we eat today.The hard and gritty bread was very dangerous to their teeth.

But it was the stable food of many Egyptians. The most common type of bread is a pita type made either with refined white flour called aysh shami, or with coarse, whole wheat, aysh baladi.There were more than thirty different shapes of bread. Honey was used as there was no sugar. Beans was another main crop they grew.Egyptian farming and agriculture flourished because of the Nile river. Vegetables constitute the main ingredient of most Egyptian dishes in additions to meat (beef and chicken). Fruits are eaten as dessert after a meal with many other sweet dishes that Egyptians excel at making.

Ancient Egyptian Food For Kids

Ancient Egyptian Food For Kids

Ancient Egyptian Food For Kids


The fruits the Egyptians ate were dates, grapes, pomegranate, peaches, watermelon etc. although the nature of the fruit varied with the prevailing season and agriculture. Several types of meats were eaten, including pork in some regions. Cattle beef was commonly eaten by the rich, along with sheep or goat, while the poor often ate geese, ducks and other fowl.Even when the other regions were affected by famines, the people of Egypt were secured because the Nile was there to feed the people.

Strong-tasting vegetables like onion were liked by them.They also ate peas and beans, lettuce, cucumbers and leeks. Vegetables were often served with oil and vinegar dressing. Fish and poultry were consumed by the people. Fish and meat were stored by methods like salting.Cooking was done by housewives in ordinary families and servants in richer families. Kitchen tools like mortars were also used.

 Melokhya which is a soup made from a leafy green summer vegetable was a traditional dish in Egypt. Basbousa, a type of sweet, Baklawah, Um Aly, a raisin cake, Konafa, Katayef were the sweet deserts of ancient Egypt.

Ancient Egyptian Sandals

During the ancient Egyptian period people mostly travelled barefoot. It is believed that since the temperature in Egypt was very high throughout the year, people gave less importance to wearing footwear. There is hardly any record to suggest that the Egyptians wore shoes or any other form of footwear. The ancient Egyptians began wearing sandals during the early years of the New Kingdom rule.

Ancient Egyptian Sandals

Ancient Egyptian Sandals

The sandals used by these people were very simple and were made either by using straw, reeds or leather. The wealthy people wore leather sandals and these lasted for a longer time than the sandals which were made using straw or reeds. The sandals were worn by all people belonging to all the classes except those who were extremely poor.

The sandals were decorated by using beads, jewels; some also had buckles on the straps made from precious metals. For the most part, the ancient Egyptians walked without wearing sandals or shoes. Sandals were worn by people on special events. The gold and wood sandals are known to have been made in the ancient Egyptian period.

During the Middle and New Kingdoms time, the sandals were commonly used. The use of covered shoes by the ancient Egyptians is not very well known. However some records suggest that shoes were made by weaving palm fiber and grass.

In the Early Middle Kingdom, shoes were a modification of sandals. Shoes had straps between the toes and were joined to the sides at the heel. It also had leather cover which protected the feet. The Hittites settled in Anatolian highlands wore shoes with turned up toes. The Egyptians during the New Kingdom period are said to be influenced by the Hittites and began using shoes.

2016/07/25

Ancient Egypt Social Structure

 Ancient Egypt Social Classes

The ancient Egyptian society had been perceived in a number of ways. Ramses the third, when looking at his subject thought of them as nobles, administrators, soldiers, servants and the general denizens of ancient Egypt. Whereas, Herodotus, a foreigner who visited Egypt during the ancient times viewed them as belonging to different classes.

They were, distributed with respect to their jobs or professions.  However, he did not put the slaves into any category. He did not consider them fit enough to be grouped together with the other men and women.The social class of ancient Egypt was at different extremes. There existed a huge gap between the people from different social classes.

Ancient Egypt Social Structure


This was prevalent ever since the Pre dynastic time and was further enhanced as time passed. At the time when ancient Egypt was unified, the small band of elite upper classes of men reigned along with the assistance of scribes who ran the administration. The administration presided over the general populace. Then came the peasants or the farmers and they were extremely poor, with a hand to mouth existence.

The labourers were absorbed instantly into the work and numerous projects everywhere. This phenomenon reached its absolute peak during times when the pyramids and the tombs and the temples were made. These jobs pulled in all the manual labour that could be bought. This development put the pharaoh in the utmost lofty position in the society. This immediately proceeded the time during which the king's wealth started diminishing which also led to the diminishing of the powers of the king and the royal families.

The noblemen and their families took up the mantle after this decline. Even the nobility, when they came into power, depended on the scribes to a very large extent. The scribes, therefore, continued to be in a position of power throughout the history of ancient Egypt. The nobility were separate from the centre of administration unlike those of the royal ones, who were mainly under the influence of the pharaoh. The scribes were the academicians and the scholars. They were recipients of a good and elite education consisting of reading, writing, mathematics, etc.

This ground knowledge enabled them to govern the country in a just and efficient manner. They were also trained in some specific professional thing, for example, medicine, mathematics, architecture, etc. They were also ranked according to their capabilities even in this selected group of people. The priests and military personnel were taken from all strata of the society and were a completely different group of their own. The labour was in majority throughout. They were mainly peasants, farm workers, etc and looked down upon by everyone alike.

They were worked hard and often ruthlessly. The outcasts also existed; however, not much information about them is available. All this apart, most people in ancient Egypt were complacent with their status and position in the society.

Ancient Egyptian Tomb Paintings

Ancient Egyptian civilisation is regarded as the most conservative and rigid ever. The basic patterns of Egyptian institutions, beliefs and artistic ideas were formed during the first few centuries and didn't change, reoccurring till the very end. The knowledge of Egyptian civilisation rests majorly on the tombs and their contents.

The Egyptian concept was that each person should equip himself well for a happy afterlife, which leads to the vast repertoire of grave goods and myriad tomb paintings in the pyramids. An early development of tomb art can be seen in a fragment of the wall painting from Heirakonpolis, with standardised human and animal figures and large white boats.

Ancient Egyptian Tomb Paintings
Ancient Egyptian Tomb Paintings

The Old Kingdom developed much further in this field in trying to create a replica of the daily life of a living man for his soul(ka). The Hippopotamus Hunt at the tomb of Ti in Saqqara is a perfect example because of its landscape setting. The representation of the deceased on all tomb paintings of the Old kingdom was passive and static, as an onlooker of all the action around him. It might be a subtle way of conveying the death of the human body but the continuation of the living soul. During the Middle Kingdom a loosening of the established norms can be observed in the tomb paintings of the princes of Beni Hasan, carved in the rock.

A good example is the mural "Feeding the Oryxes" from the rock-cut tomb of Khnum-hotep, where the painter has experimented with foreshortening and spatial effects. The best of all tomb paintings are derived from the New Kingdom. The formulas of projecting an image onto a flat surface continued, but there is more naturalism in the figures. The figure of the deceased is not static anymore but involved in the whole action, and he is also brought down in scale. There is relaxation of the stiff rules of representation and the set themes once thought appropriate for tomb paintings. King Akhenaton, along with starting a new faith based on Aton , gave a new direction to artistic activity.

There was a temporary relaxation of the Egyptian preoccupation with life in the hereafter, and greater concern with life on earth. There grew a different, more naturalistic way of representing the human figure. The survival of the Amarna Style( as this art was called) is seen in the tomb of Tutankhamen. The paintings on the panels of a golden chest portray the king's mission to define himself as the imperial conquerer. The chest depicts the king as a hunter and a warrior, a double proclamation of his royal power.

Although by Tutankhamen's times, the Amarna style had almost vanished, some lingering features were still practised, but the Pharaohs after Akhenaton re-established the cult of Amen, and returned to the old manner of art. Illustrated papyrus scrolls became the essential equipments of all well to do tombs. The scroll of Hu-Nefer in the Theban necropolis is an excellent example that represents the final judgement of the deceased.

Ancient Egyptian Government

Ancient Egyptian government has not been characterized by a democratic system. Power was concentrated in one person Pharaoh. He controlled and dominated the country. Pharaoh was considered a living god with ultimate control over the people and the land. His eldest son was usually his successor.Egypt had traits of theocracy as well. Religion has not been kept out of the state. Priests and holy men who have formed their own class exerted sufficient influence on the government. They were respected and considered a higher class of society in relation to the commoners.

Ancient Egyptian Government
Ancient Egyptian Government
The government structure of ancient Egypt other officials, including viziers, military commanders, generals and treasurers, Minister of Public Works and tax collectors, who all answered directly to the pharaoh.The status of a vizier was equivalent to that of a prime minister. Governors of specific pieces of land were sometimes controlled by the vizier. Court officials and nobles who held senior helped governance.

A strong government and a well-organized bureaucracy were the need of time. The main areas of administration were the Treasury, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Public Works, the judiciary and the army. The functions of the central government changed over time. The basic functions include Build royal monuments, civil order control, achieving the population census, the management of industries, tax collection, maintaining the army, recording rainfall and water levels of the river Nile law enforcement and punishment, etc.


Realized was an important feature of the administrative system. Everything was recorded, wills, lists of conscription, tax lists, letters and transcripts of the trial.The government has been divided into the central government and the provincial government. Both Upper and Lower Egypts had their own governments and leaders. Upper Egypt was divided into 22 districts and Lower Egypt into 20 districts.Upper and Lower Egypt were finally united in 3118 BC. Under the previous government included the ancient Egyptian districts. 


 Districts were called nomes and the governor or the head of the provincial administration was called a nomarch. The police were called Medjay. The police maintained public order. Although Egypt was one of the most peaceful countries, there was an army. Military recruitment was not always voluntary. Taxation existed mainly in forms of labor and goods. Taxes were often a burden on the public. Laws have been developed and implemented. The concept of Maat and customs are very important.  

Make "bad" invited public disapproval and disgrace.Although the general govern has been consistent in Egyptian history, governments have often been reversed or replaced for reasons such as invasions, chaos or the undue influence of religion, etc.

Ancient Egyptian Famous People

Some of the famous ancient Egyptians were:

Menes : was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the early dynastic period, credited by classical tradition with having united Upper and Lower Egypt, and as the founder of the first dynasty.The identity of Menes is the subject of ongoing debate, although mainstream Egyptological consensus identifies Menes with the protodynastic pharaoh Narmer or first dynasty Hor-Aha.Both pharaohs are credited with the unification of Egypt, to different degrees by various authorities.


Menes
Menes


Djoser
Djoser

Djoser : was an ancient Egyptian king of the 3rd dynasty during the Old Kingdom and the founder of this epoque. He is well known under his Hellenized names Tosorthros and Sesorthos . He was the son of king Khasekhemwy and queen Nimaethap, but if he also was the direct throne successor is still unclear. Most Ramesside Kinglists name a king Nebka before him, but since there are still difficulties in connecting that name with contemporary horus names, some Egyptologists question the handed down throne sequence.

Khufu
Khufu

Khufu : is the birth name of an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, who ruled in the 4th dynasty of the Old Kingdom, around 2580 B.C. He is equally well known under his Hellenized name Khêops or Cheops  and less well known under another Hellenized name, Súphis . Khufu was the second pharaoh of the 4th dynasty; he followed his possible father, king Sneferu, on the throne. He is generally accepted as having built the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, but many other aspects of his reign are rather poorly documented.The only completely preserved portrait of the king is a three-inch high ivory figurine found in a temple ruin of later period at Abydos in 1903. All other reliefs and statues were found in fragments and many buildings of Khufu are lost. Everything known about Khufu comes from inscriptions in his necropolis at Giza and later documents. For example, Khufu is the main actor of the famous Papyrus Westcar from 13th dynasty.

  Thutmose III
Thutmose III



Thutmose III :  was the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. During the first twenty-two years of Thutmose's reign he was co-regent with his stepmother, Hatshepsut, who was named the pharaoh. While he is shown first on surviving monuments, both were assigned the usual royal names and insignia and neither is given any obvious seniority over the other. He served as the head of her armies.After her death and his later rise to being the pharaoh of the kingdom, he created the largest empire Egypt had ever seen; no fewer than seventeen campaigns were conducted, and he conquered from Niya in North Syria to the fourth waterfall of the Nile in Nubia.