Ancient Egyptian Buildings

The ancient Egyptians built pyramids as tombs for pharaohs and their queens. The pharaohs were buried in pyramids of many shapes and sizes from before the beginning of the Old Kingdom at the end of the Middle Kingdom. There are about eighty pyramids known today from ancient Egypt. The three largest and best preserved were built at Giza at the beginning of the Old Kingdom. The best known of these pyramids was built for the pharaoh Khufu. It is known as the "Great Pyramid".

In the first part of the Old Kingdom, the Egyptians built mainly mastabas, a sort of tomb with a flat roof, like a house. Then in most of the Old Kingdom, the Egyptians built the pyramid tombs which are now so famous. Of course, they also built smaller buildings such as houses and butcher shops. In the Middle Kingdom, the mastaba returned, albeit in a more elaborate form for the Pharaohs. They did not build pyramids any more. Then, in the New Kingdom there was a lot of building that was not tombs: the temples to the gods in particular, but also for the palaces of the Pharaohs.

The Great Sphinx of Egypt, one of the wonders of the ancient Egyptian architecture, adjoins the Giza pyramids and has a length of 240 ft. Built in the fourth dynasty, it is about 4500 years. At 10, $ 2.5 million restoration project was completed in 1998. Other buildings of note include Egyptian temples of Karnak, Edfu, and Abu Simbel and the tombs of Beni Hassan.
Djoser's step pyramid complex about a landmark change in the ancient Egyptian construction techniques. Improved materials and architectural skills is often attributed to his architect, Imhotep. He was a commoner who rose to the top of Egyptian society with the positions of vizier, high priest of Ptah, and "inspector of works." Djoser was so pleased with his loyal service and exceptional talent that he had the inscribed name of Imhotep on the basis of one of his own statues, a rare honor.

The Egyptians lived in houses made of bricks. The bricks were made of mud and chopped straw. They mixed the mud and straw, then poured the mixture into molds. The molds were placed in the sun to cook hard bricks. Their homes were enormous. Houses had flat roofs. Often, people sitting outside on their roofs in the evening watching the sunset and take the evening breeze. The physical environment has affected houses. Windows were built high to let out the heat during the day. The cold air through the window at night also helped cool the houses.


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